Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (1999). Toxicological profile for mercury. US Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp46.pdf

Aldenderfer, M., Craig, N. M., Speakman, R. J., & Popelka-Filcoff, R. (2008). Four-thousand-year-old gold artifacts from the Lake Titicaca basin, southern Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(13), 5002–5005. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0710937105

Alvarez-Berríos, N., Campos-Cerqueira, M., Hernández-Serna, A., Delgado C.J.A., Román-Dañobeytia, F. & Aide, T.M. (2016). Impacts of small-scale gold mining on birds and anurans near the Tambopata Natural Reserve, Peru, assessed using passive acoustic monitoring. Tropical Conservation Science. Vol. 9 (2): 832-851. www.tropicalconservationscience.org

Angel, Nicole. (2019, September 21). Lideranças criticam o garimpo em terras indígenas durante encontro na UnB. Globo. https://g1.globo.com/df/distrito-federal/noticia/2019/11/21/liderancas-criticam-o-garimpo-em-terras-indigenas-durante-encontro-na-unb.ghtml

Appleton, J.D., Williams, T.M., Breward, N., Apostol, A., Miguel, J., Miranda, C. (1999). Mercury contamination associated with artisanal gold mining on the island of Mindanao, the Philippines. Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 228, No. 2-3: 95-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00016-9

Ashe, K. (2012). Elevated Mercury Concentrations in Humans of Madre de Dios, Peru. Public Library of Science, ONE Vol. 7, No. 3: e33305. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033305

Asia Foundation (2016). Frugal Rehabilitation Methodology (FRM): Field Handbook. Asia Foundation, San Francisco. https://asiafoundation.org/publication/frugal-rehabilitation-methodology/

Azevedo-Ramos, C., Moutinho, P. (2018). No man’s land in the Brazilian Amazon: Could undesignated public forests slow Amazon deforestation?. Land Use Policy. Volume 73, p. 125-127, ISSN 0264-8377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.01.005

Banco Central del Ecuador. (2018, July). Reporte de Minería: Dirección Nacional de Síntesis Macroeconómica. https://contenido.bce.fin.ec/documentos/Estadisticas/Hidrocarburos/ReporteMinero072018.pdf

Basu N, Horvat M, Evers DC, Zastenskaya I, Weihe P, Tempowski J. A State-of-the-Science Review of Mercury Biomarkers in Human Populations Worldwide between 2000 and 2018. Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Oct;126(10):106001. doi: 10.1289/EHP3904. PMID: 30407086; PMCID: PMC6371716.

Bebbington, D.H., & Verdum, R., Gamboa, C., & Bebbington, A. (2018). Impacts of Extractive Industry and Infrastructure on Forests: Amazonia. Climate and Land Use Alliance. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330425084_Impacts_of_Extractive_Industry_and_Infrastructure_on_Forests_Amazonia

Bénéfice, E., Monrroy, S.J., & Lopez, R.W. (2009). Mercury exposure and lifestyle of native amerindian communities living along the Beni River (Bolivia). ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/29602722_Mercury_exposure_and_lifestyle_of_native_amerindian_communities_living_along_the_Beni_River_Bolivia

Branford, Sue. (2020, July 7). Brazilian court orders 20,000 gold miners removed from Yanomami Park. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2020/07/brazilian-court-orders-20000-gold-miners-removed-from-yanomami-park/

Brown, K. W., & Bakewell, P. (2008). Colonial Spanish America. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. (J. Kinsbruner & E. D. Langer, Ed.). [eBook edition] (2nd ed., Vol. 4,) Charles Scribner’s Sons. (pp. 608-613). Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3078903661/GVRL?u=have19984&sid=GVRL&xid=aca442c2

Caballero Espejo, J., Messinger, M., Román-Dañobeytia, F., Ascorra, C., Fernandez, L.E., Silman, M. (2018). Deforestation and Forest Degradation Due to Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: A 34-Year Perspective. Remote Sensing. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/10/12/1903#cite

Caballero J., Pillaca M., Messinger M., Araujo-Flores J., Cabanillas F., Vega CM., Fernandez LE., Silman M. (2020). Conversión de paisajes forestales a humedades Amazonicos por minería aurífera. Wake Forest University. http://cincia.wfu.edu/publicaciones/conversion-de-paisajes-forestales-a-humedales-amazonicos-en-madre-de-dios/

Carnegie Amazon Mercury Ecosystem Project. (2013). Mercury in Madre De Dios Mercury Concentrations in Fish and Humans in Puerto Maldonado. https://www-legacy.dge.carnegiescience.edu/research/CAMEP/CAMEP%20Research%20Brief%20-%20Puerto%20Maldonado%20English%20-%20FINAL.pdf

Castellanos, A., Chaparro-Narváez, P., Morales-Plaza, C. D., Alzate, A., Padilla, J., Arévalo, M., & Herrera, S. (2016). Malaria in gold-mining areas in Colombia. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 111(1), 59–66. https://doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760150382

Castilla C. O., Amancio N.L. & Lopez F.T.. (2015, August 5). Tracing Latin America’s Illegal Gold to the US. Insight Crime. https://www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/tracing-colombia-bolivia-ecuador-illegal-gold-to-us/

Catanoso, Justin. (2020, August 9). Gov’t takedown of illegal gold mining in Peru shows promise, but at a cost. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/govt-takedown-of-illegal-gold-mining-in-peru-shows-promise-but-at-a-cost/

Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades. (2017). Análisis de Situación de Salud del pueblo Nahua de Santa Rosa de Serjali en la Reserva Territorial Kugapakori, Nahua, Nanti y Otros. Ministerio de Salud del Perú. http://www.dge.gob.pe/portal/docs/asis/Asis_Nahua.pdf

Csillik, Ovidiu & Asner, Gregory. (2020). Aboveground carbon emissions from gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon. Environmental Research Letters. 15. 014006. 10.1088/1748-9326/ab639c.

Costa, C. (2020, May 21). Amazon under threat: Fires, loggers and now virus. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-51300515

Cremers, L. Kolen, J., de Theije, M. Small-scale Gold Mining in the Amazon. In Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon: The cases of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname (pp. 1-17). (Cuadernos del CEDLA; No. 26). CEDLA. https://research.vu.nl/en/publications/formalized-small-scale-gold-mining-in-the-brazilian-amazon-an-act

Dalberg. (2018). Healthy Rivers Healthy People Addressing the Mercury Crisis in the Amazon. World Wildlife Fund. https://www.wwf.org.uk/sites/default/files/2018-11/WWF%20-%20Healthy%20Rivers%20Healthy%20People.pdf

de Haan, J., Dales, K., McQuilken, J. (2020, September 8). Mapping artisanal and small-scale mining to the Sustainable Development Goals. Pact. https://www.pactworld.org/library/mapping-artisanal-and-small-scale-mining-sustainable-development-goals

Despacho del Comisionado para la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (DCONU). (2019). Informe Sobre La Situación del Arco Minero y La Emergencia Humanitaria Compleja en Venezuela. Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1har-GeigrhgR41ekU0EPrW5rQgHwctKM/view

Dezécache, C., Faure, E., Gond, V., Salles, J.-M., Vieilledent, G., & Hérault, B. (2017). Gold-rush in a forested El Dorado: Deforestation leakages and the need for regional cooperation. Environmental Research Letters, 12(3), 034013. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6082

Díaz, B. d. C. (2008). The History of the Conquest of New Spain. (D. Carrasco, Ed.) [eBook edition] Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-4287-4. https://iu.instructure.com/courses/1479413/files/57622696/download

Douine, M., Mosnier, E., Le Hingrat, Q., Charpentier, C., Corlin, F., Hureau, L., Adenis, A., Lazrek, Y., Niemetsky, F., Aucouturier, A.L., Demar, M., Musset, L. & Nacher, M. (2018). Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health. BMC Public Health 18, 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4557-4

Drye, Willie. (n.d.) El Dorado. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/archaeology/el-dorado/

Eakin, M. C. “Colonial Brazil.” Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008, (pp. 606-608). Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3078903660/GVRL?u=have19984&sid=GVRL&xid=fea47dd5.

Ebus, Bram. (2019, July 23). This is how Venezuela’s gold rush is poisoning indigenous people and ruining communities. Miami Herald. https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/venezuela/article232463472.html

Ebus, Bram. (2020, April 26). New study: Amazon authorities can’t get a grip on mercury trade. InfoAmazonia. https://infoamazonia.org/en/2020/04/new-study-trade-of-mercury-largely-overseen-by-authorities-in-the-amazon/#!/story=post-49701&loc=4.841709700000004,-58.6416891,7

Ebus, B. & Leeuwin, W. (2020, September 14). The Gold Rush Threatening the World’s Greenest Country. InfoAmazonia. https://mercurio.infoamazonia.org/en/suriname/

Ebus, B. & Leeuwin, W. (2020, September 14). The Toxic Metal in the Shadow of the Gold Industry. InfoAmazonia. https://mercurio.infoamazonia.org/en/guyana/

Earthworks. (n.d.). How the 20 Tons of Mine Waste per Gold Ring Figure Was Calculated. Earthworks No Dirty Gold Campaign. https://earthworks.org/cms/assets/uploads/archive/files/publications/20TonsMemo_FINAL.pdf

Efecto Cocuyo. (n.d.). Arco minero del Orinoco: crimen, corrupción y cianuro. CONNECTAS. https://www.connectas.org/arco-minero-del-orinoco-crimen-corrupcion-y-cianuro-2/

Environmental Protection Agency (2018). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Without Mercury. EPA. https://www.epa.gov/international-cooperation/artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-without-mercury

Financial Action Task Force (FATF) & Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG). (2015). Money laundering and terrorist financing risks and vulnerabilities associated with gold. FATF, Paris & APG, Syney

Finer M, Mamani N (2020) Amazon Gold Mining, part 2: Brazil. MAAP: 116. https://maaproject.org/2020/gold_brazil/

Fréry, N., Maury-Brachet, R., Maillot, E., Deheeger, M., de Mérona, B., & Boudou, A. (2001). Gold-mining activities and mercury contamination of native amerindian communities in French Guiana: key role of fish in dietary uptake. Environmental health perspectives, 109(5), 449–456. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.109-1240303

Garnett, S.T., Burgess, N.D., Fa, J.E. et al. A spatial overview of the global importance of Indigenous lands for conservation. Nat Sustain 1, 369–374 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0100-6

Global Environment Facility (GEF). (2018). Mercury-free mining: UNDP, GEF, and the Government of Peru work together to reduce the use of mercury in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Lima, Peru, January 17. https://www.thegef.org/news/mercury-free-mining-undp-gef-and-government-peru-work-together-reduce-use-mercury-artisanal-and

George, M. W. (2020). 2017 Minerals Yearbook: Gold [Advance Release]. U.S. Department of the Interior & U.S. Geological Survey. https://prd-wret.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/assets/palladium/production/atoms/files/myb1-2017-gold.pdf

Gillingham, F. & Valenzuela, M.(2019, October 10). Toxic river: Mining, mercury and murder continue to plague Colombia’s Atrato. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2019/10/toxic-river-mining-mercury-and-murder-continue-to-plague-colombias-atrato/

Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime (GIATOC). (2016). Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America. http://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Organized-Crime-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America.pdf

Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime (GIATOC). (2017). Case Study: Illicit Gold Mining in Peru. https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/tgiatoc-case-study-peru-1878-web-lo-res.pdf

Goldhub. (2020, June 30). Gold mine production. Gold Hub by World Gold Council. https://www.gold.org/goldhub/data/historical-mine-production

Gonçalves, A.O., Marshall, B.G., Moreno-Chavez, J., Veiga, M.M., (2017). Mercury and cyanide use at artisanal and small-scale gold processing centers in Zaruma- Portovelo, southern Ecuador. J. Clean. Prod. 165, 836–845

Gonzaga, Diego. (2020, June 29). Illegal mining threatens the Amazon and exposes Indigenous Peoples to COVID-19. Greenpeace. https://www.greenpeace.org/international/story/43837/mining-yanomami-munduruku-amazon-forest-indigenous-covid-19/

González-Merizalde, M.V., Menezes-Filho, J.A., Cruz-Erazo, C.T., Bermeo-Flores, S.A., Sánchez-Castillo, M.O., Hernández-Bonilla, D., Mora, A. (2016). Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 71(2):171-82. doi: 10.1007/s00244-016-0285-5. Epub 2016 May 12. PMID: 27173830

Guyana Forestry Commission. (2018, November). Guyana REDD+ Monitoring Reporting & Verification System (MRVS) Year 7 MRVS Report 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2017 Version 1- 21st November 2018. https://forestry.gov.gy/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/MRVS-Interim-Measures-Report-Year-7-Version-1.pdf

Hacon, S., Barrocas, P.R,G., de Vasconcellos, A.C.S., Barcellos, C., Wasserman, J.C., Campos, R.C., Ribeiro, C., & Azevedo-Carloni, F.B. (2008). An overview of mercury contamination research in the Amazon basin with an emphasis on Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 24(7), 1479-1492. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2008000700003

Harding, G., Dalziel J., Vass, P. (2018). Bioaccumulation of methylmercury within the marine food web of the outer Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine. PLoS One. 2018;13(7). e0197220. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0197220

Hendus, B. (2020). Opening the Black Box Local Insights Into the Formal and Informal Global Mercury Trade Revealed. International Union for Conservation of Nature, The Netherlands. https://www.iucn.nl/files/groene_economie/lr_mercury_brochure_digitaal_gebruik.pdf

Heemskerk, M. & Olivieira, M. (2004, March 31). Maroon perceptions of small-scale gold mining impacts, II A survey in mining camps and affected communities in Suriname and French Guiana. World Wildlife Fund. http://www.social-solutions.net/heemskerk/images/WWF_FG64_Final.pdf

Human Rights Watch. (2020, February 4). Venezuela: Violent Abuses in Illegal Gold Mines. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/02/04/venezuela-violent-abuses-illegal-gold-mines#

Ibarra, T. P. (2017, Sept 11). En Guainía, la gente tiene 60 veces más mercurio que el permitido. El Tiempo. https://www.eltiempo.com/vida/medio-ambiente/poblacion-de-guania-tiene-niveles-de-mercurio-mas-altos-que-el-promedio-129712

Illicit Mining: Threats to U.S. National Security and International Human Rights. (2019) (testimony of Richard H. Glenn). https://www.state.gov/illicit-mining-threats-to-u-s-national-security-and-international-human-rights/

Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF). (2017). IGF Mining Policy Framework Assessment: Suriname. Winnipeg: IISD. https://www.iisd.org/system/files/publications/suriname-mining-policy-framework-assessment-en.pdf

Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF). (2017). Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. Winnipeg: IISD. https://www.iisd.org/publications/global-trends-artisanal-and-small-scale-mining-asm-review-key-numbers-and-issues

Jones, Julie. (October 2002) Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Gold of the Indies. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ingd/hd_ingd.htm

Kalamandeen, M., Gloor, E., Johnson, I., Agard, S., Katow, M., Vanbrooke A., Ashley, D., Batterman, S., Ziv, G., Holder-Collins, K., Phillips, O., Brondizio, E., Vieira, I., Galbraith, D. (2020). Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests. J Appl Ecol. 2020; 57: 1730– 1740. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13669

Kessler, Robert. (2018). Outbreak: Modern Parallels. EcoHealth Alliance. https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/2018/05/outbreak-modern-parallels

Kolen, J., de Theije, M. E. M., & Mathis, A. (2013). Formalized small-scale gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon: an activity surrounded by informality. In L. Cremers, J. Kolen, & M. de Theije (Eds.), Small-scale Gold Mining in the Amazon. The cases of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname (pp. 31-45). (Cuadernos del CEDLA; No. 26). CEDLA. https://research.vu.nl/en/publications/formalized-small-scale-gold-mining-in-the-brazilian-amazon-an-act

Langlois, Jill. (2020, August 12). Amazon gold mining drives malaria surges among Indigenous peoples. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/08/gold-mining-deforestation-amazon-drives-malaria-surges-brazil-indigenous-peoples/#close

Llangari, Jose. (2019, July 18). Ecuador begins large-scale mining at Mirador copper project. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ecuador-mining/ecuador-begins-large-scale-mining-at-miador-copper-project-idUSKCN1UD36F

Lobo, F., Costa, M., Novo, E., & Telmer, K. (2016). Distribution of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Tapajós River Basin (Brazilian Amazon) over the Past 40 Years and Relationship with Water Siltation. Remote Sensing, 8(7), 579. doi:10.3390/rs8070579
Lobo, F., Costa, M., Novo, E.M.L.D.M. & Telmer, K. (2017). Effects of Small-Scale Gold Mining Tailings on the Underwater Light Field in the Tapajós River Basin, Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing, 9(8):861. dio: 10.3390/rs9080861
MacDonald, A.J. & Mordecai, E. A. (2019). Amazon deforestation drives malaria transmission, and malaria burden reduces forest clearing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (44) 22212-22218; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905315116

Mainville, Nicolas. (2018). An unprecedented legal victory for indigenous rights in Ecuador frees up huge swath of Amazonian rainforest from gold mining. Amazon Frontlines. https://www.amazonfrontlines.org/chronicles/sinangoe-victory/#:~:text=On%20October%2022nd%202018%2C%20the,of%20the%20Kofan’s%20right%20to

Marshall B.G., Veiga M.M., da Silva H.A.M., Guimarães J.R.D. (2020). Cyanide Contamination of the Puyango-Tumbes River Caused by Artisanal Gold Mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador. Current Environmental Health Reports.7(3):303-310. DOI: 10.1007/s40572-020-00276-3
Marshall, Bruce & Veiga, Marcello. (2017). Formalization of artisanal miners: Stop the train, we need to get off!. The Extractive Industries and Society. 4. 10.1016/j.exis.2017.02.004.

Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project. (2019, May 2). MAAP #100: Western Amazon – Deforestation Hotspots of 2018 (A Regional Perspective). https://maaproject.org/2019/amazonia-occidental-2018/

Montiel, A. & Benezra, J. (2019, July 23). Gold mining may be all that’s keeping Venezuela in business. Organized crime runs it. Miami Herald. https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/venezuela/article232672327.html

Moskowitz, P. (2014, August 13). Mount Polley mine spill: a hazard of Canada’s industry-friendly attitude? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/aug/13/mount-polley-mine-spill-british-columbia-canada

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2013). OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and
High-Risk Areas: Second Edition. OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264185050-en

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2017). Due Diligence in Colombia’s Gold Supply Chain: gold mining in chocó. https://mneguidelines.oecd.org/Choco-Colombia-Gold-Baseline-EN.pdf

Ortega, R.C. (2015, Mayo). Medio ambiente y minería aurífera en la Amazonia boliviana: Parálisis local de una investigación científica urgente. CEDLA. https://www.plataformaintegraldemineria.org/sites/default/files/2018-11/Presentaci%C3%B3n%20Medio%20ambiente%20y%20miner%C3%ADa%20aur%C3%ADfera%20en%20la%20Amazonia%20boliviana.pdf

Otchere, Fred & Veiga, Marcello & Hinton, Jennifer & Farias, Renato & Hamaguchi, Robert. (2004). Transforming open mining pits into fish farms: Moving towards sustainability. Natural Resources Forum. 28. 216 – 223. 10.1111/j.1477-8947.2004.00091.x.

Ouboter, P. E., Landburg, G., Satnarain, G. U., Starke, S. Y., Nanden, I., Simon-Friedt, B., Hawkins, W. B., Taylor, R., Lichtveld, M. Y., Harville, E., & Wickliffe, J. K. (2018). Mercury Levels in Women and Children from Interior Villages in Suriname, South America. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(5), 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051007

Peterson, G., & Heemskerk, M. (2001). Deforestation and forest regeneration following small-scale gold mining in the Amazon: the case of Suriname. Environmental Conservation, 28(2), 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892901000121

PlanetGOLD. (n.d.). Colombia: Transformation that benefits local communities. https://www.planetgold.org/colombia

Popkin, Gabriel. (2019, November 25). Guyana refutes findings that deforestation skyrocketed after REDD+ payments stopped. Mongabay. https://news.mongabay.com/2019/11/guyana-refutes-findings-that-deforestation-skyrocketed-after-redd-payments-stopped/

Prepared Statement of Carrie Filipetti. Hearing before the: Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy,

Press, Claire. (2019, May 9). The elite soldiers protecting the Amazon rainforest. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-48187766

Red Amazónica de Información Socioambiental Georreferenciada (RAISG). (2018). Mining Concessions Data Online Map [Interactive Map]. https://www3.socioambiental.org/geo/RAISGMapaOnline/

Rendon, M., Sandin, L., & Fernandez, C. (2020, April, 16). Illegal Mining in Venezuela: Death and Devastation in the Amazonas and Orinoco Regions. Center for Strategies & International Studies. https://www.csis.org/analysis/illegal-mining-venezuela-death-and-devastation-amazonas-and-orinoco-regions#:~:text=BACKGROUND%3A%20THE%20ORINOCO%20MINING%20ARC&text=The%20Maduro%20regime%20sectioned%20off,an%20area%20rich%20in%20minerals.

Salcedo, J. (2020, Junio 28). La minería ilegal se reubica en el límite en la Reserva Nacional Tambopata. OjoPúblico. https://ojo-publico.com/1926/la-mineria-ilegal-se-reubica-en-el-limite-en-la-reserva-tambopata

Salman, T., Carillo, F. & Carola, S. (2013). Cooperative Organization and Balsa Mining in Bolivia; In L. Cremers, J. Kolen, & M. de Theiji (Eds). Formalized Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon: The Cases of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname. Cuadernos del Cedla, No. 26. (46-67) https://www.gomiam.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/20130312-Cuaderno-Small-Scale-Gold-Mining-in-the-Amazon.pdf

Salyer, S. J., Silver, R., Simone, K., & Barton Behravesh, C. (2017). Prioritizing Zoonoses for Global Health Capacity Building-Themes from One Health Zoonotic Disease Workshops in 7 Countries, 2014-2016. Emerging infectious diseases, 23(13), S55–S64. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2313.170418

Sanchez, J. F., Carnero, A. M., Rivera, E., Rosales, L. A., Baldeviano, G. C., Asencios, J. L., Edgel, K. A., Vinetz, J. M., & Lescano, A. G. (2017). Unstable Malaria Transmission in the Southern Peruvian Amazon and Its Association with Gold Mining, Madre de Dios, 2001-2012. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 96(2), 304–311. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0030

Sarmiento, M., Giraldo, B.H., Ayala, H., Uran, A., Soto, A.C., Martinez, L. (2013). Characteristics and Challenges of Small-Scale Gold Mining in Colombia. (Cremers, L., Kolen, J., & de Theiji, M., Ed). Formalized Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon: The Cases of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Suriname (46-67). Amsterdam: Cuadernos del Cedla, No. 26.

Guarnizo, José. (2018). Muerta Lenta: el pueblo uitoto acorralado por el mercurio. Semana. https://especiales.semana.com/mercurio-contaminacion/index.html

Schuster, Richard & Germain, Ryan & Bennett, Joseph & Reo, Nicholas & Arcese, Peter. (2019). Vertebrate biodiversity on indigenous-managed lands in Australia, Brazil, and Canada equals that in protected areas. Environmental Science & Policy. 101. 1-6. 10.1016/j.envsci.2019.07.002.

Semana Sostenible. (2020, July 8). Extracción de oro aumenta en la Amazonia en medio de la pandemia. https://sostenibilidad.semana.com/medio-ambiente/articulo/extraccion-de-oro-aumenta-en-la-amazonia-en-medio-de-la-pandemia-deforestacion/52697

Sieber, N. L. & Brain, J. (2014). Health Impact of Artisanal Gold Mining in Latin America. Harvard. https://revista.drclas.harvard.edu/book/health-impact-artisanal-gold-mining-latin-america

Sonter L., Herrera D., Barrett D., Galford G., Moran C., & Soares-Filho B. (2017). Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature Communications. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-017-00557-w

Sousa, R., Veiga, M., Van Zyl, D., Telmer, K., Spiegel, S., & Selder, J. (2011). Policies and regulations for Brazil’s artisanal gold mining sector: analysis and recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(6-7), 742–750. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.12.001

Sos Orinoco. (2019, January). Gold Mining Activity in Yapacana National Park Venezuela’s Amazon Region: A national, international and geopolitical matter of extreme urgency for the environment. https://sosorinoco.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/PNY_EN_20190314.pdf

Swenson JJ, Carter CE, Domec J-C, Delgado CI (2011) Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: Global Prices, Deforestation, and Mercury Imports. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018875

The Travels of Marco Polo/Book 3/Chapter 2. (2009, May 2). In Wikisource. from https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Travels_of_Marco_Polo/Book_3/Chapter_2&oldid=1082180

Thomas, M., Veiga, M., Marshall, B. & Dunbar, W. (2019). Artisanal gold supply chain: Measures from the Ecuadorian Government. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337663045_Artisanal_gold_supply_chain_Measures_from_the_Ecuadorian_Government

Transparencia Venezuela. (2019). Deadly Gold – Organized Crime, Ecocide, and Corruption. https://transparencia.org.ve/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Deadly-Gold-Transparencia-Venezuela.pdf

United Nations Comtrade. Trade Statistics Database (2019). https://comtrade.un.org/data/

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), (2019). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining
and Mercury Management Innovation Programme. UNDP, New York.

United Nations Environment Programme (2014).Minamata Convention on Mercury. http://www.
mercuryconvention.org/Convention/tabid/3426/Default.aspx, accessed 30 August 2014

United Nations Environment Programme. (2017). Global mercury supply, trade and demand. United Nations Environment Programme, Chemicals and Health Branch. Geneva, Switzerland. https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/21725/global_mercury.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=1

United Nations Environment Programme, (n.d.) Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM). https://web.unep.org/globalmercurypartnership/our-work/artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-asgm

United Nations Environment Programme, (n.d.) Formalization: Integrating miners into the formal economy and regulatory system for the benefit of all. (n.d.). Planet Gold. https://www.planetgold.org/formalization

UNEP-WCMC. (2018). Protected Area Profile for Brazil from the World Database of Protected Areas. Protected Planet. https://www.protectedplanet.net/country/BR

United Nations Human Rights. (2020, July 15). Venezuela: UN report Highlights criminal control of mining area, and wider justice concerns. United Nations. https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/07/1068391

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) & UN Environment Programme (UNEP) (2018). Handbook for Developing National ASGM Formalization Strategies within National Action Plans. UNITAR & UN Environment, Geneva.

United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2018). Explotación de oro de aluvión Evidencias a partir de percepción remota 2016. https://www.unodc.org/documents/publications/Evoa_2016_in_1.pdf

United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2020). Explotación de oro de aluvión Evidencias a partir de percepción remota 2019. https://www.unodc.org/documents/colombia/2020/Octubre/Informe_EVOA_2019_ESP_B.pdf

United States Agency of International Development. (2019). Small-Scale and Artisanal Mining: Impacts on Biodiversity in Latin America. https://www.land-links.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/ASM_White-Paper_USAID_FINAL_21March2019Final.pdf

United States Agency of International Development. (2020). Case Study: Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining in Madre de Dios, Peru. https://www.land-links.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/small.scale_.mining.CS_.10.24.pdf

Vallejos, P. Q., Veit, P., Tipula, P., & Reytar, K. (2020, October). Undermining Rights: Indigenous Lands and Mining in the Amazon. World Resources Institute. https://www.wri.org/publication/undermining-rights

Vega, C., Orellana, J., Oliveira, M., Hacon, S., Basta, P. (2018). Human Mercury Exposure in Yanomami Indigenous Villages from the Brazilian Amazon. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 15(6):1051. doi:10.3390/ijerph15061051
Veiga, Marcello & Fadina, Omotayo. (2020). A review of the failed attempts to curb mercury use at artisanal gold mines and a proposed solution. The Extractive Industries and Society. 7. 10.1016/j.exis.2020.06.023.

Veiga, M.M. (1997). Introducing New Technologies for Abatement of Global Mercury Pollution in Latin America. UNIDO, UBC & CETEM: p. 94. https://www.ais.unwater.org/ais/aiscm/getprojectdoc.php?docid=409

Veiga, M., Hinton, J., & Lilly, C. (1999). Mercury in the Amazon: A Comprehensive Review with Special Emphasis on Bioaccumulation and Bioindicators. National Institute for Minamata Disease http://mddconsortium.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Mercury-in-the-Amazon-review.pdf

Veiga, M.M. and Hinton, J.J. (2002), Abandoned artisanal gold mines in the Brazilian Amazon: A legacy of mercury pollution. Natural Resources Forum, 26: 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-8947.00003

Veiga, M. & Marshall, B. (2018). The Colombian artisanal mining sector: Formalization is a heavy burden. The Extractive Industries and Society. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2018.11.001

Verdad Abierta (2017, March 16). ‘Barequeros’ y ‘chatarreros’, entre criminales y la DIAN. https://verdadabierta.com/barequeros-y-chatarreros-entre-criminales-y-la-dian/

Verité. (2016). The Nexus of Illegal Gold Mining and Human Trafficking in Global Supply Chains: Lessons from Latin America. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Verite-Report-Illegal_Gold_Mining-2.pdf

Vyas, K. (2018, November 20). Desperate Venezuelans Dig Up Paradise in Search of Gold. The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/desperate-venezuelans-dig-up-paradise-in-search-of-gold-1542709801

Wachenje, Benjamin. (2020, July 29). Defending Tomorrow. Global Witness. https://www.globalwitness.org/search/?search_query=defending+tomorrow&order=relevance&tab=pages&tab=pages

Wagner, L. (2016, April). Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America. Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime. https://www.amazoniasocioambiental.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/2016_04_20_Global-Initaitive-Organized-Crime-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America-April-2016-web_PDF.pdf

Watson, L. C., Hurtado-Gonzales, J. L., Chin, C. J., & Persaud, J. (2020). Survey of Methylmercury Exposures and Risk Factors Among Indigenous Communities in Guyana, South America. Journal of health & pollution, 10(26), 200604. https://doi.org/10.5696/2156-9614-10.26.200604

Workman, Daniel. (2020). Gold Exports by Country. World’s Top Exports. http://www.worldstopexports.com/gold-exports-country/

World Bank (2019). Forest-Smart Mining: Artisanal & Small-Scale Mining in Forest Landscapes (ASM). https://www.profor.info/sites/profor.info/files/Forest%20Smart%20Mining_ASM%20REPORT.pdf

World Gold Council (n.d.). Artisanal and small-scale gold mining. https://www.gold.org/about-gold/gold-supply/responsible-gold/artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining

World Health Organization. (2016). Environmental and occupational health hazards associated with artisanal and small-scale gold mining. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/247195

World Wildlife Fund. (2016). Investigation: Bolivia Seeks to Further Knowledge of Impacts of Mercury. http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/mercury_en_1810.pdf

Yale School of the Environment. (n.d.) Climate Change and Tropical Forests. Yale. https://globalforestatlas.yale.edu/climate-change/climate-change-and-tropical-forests

Zuñiga, Mariana. (2019, September 30). Reversals of Fortune. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2019/opinions/outlook/venezuela/

Zolinkov, T & Ramirez Ortiz, D. (2019). A systematic review on the management and treatment of mercury in artisanal gold mining, Science of The Total Environment,
Volume 633, 2018, Pages 816-824, ISSN 0048-9697, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2018.03.241