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  1. Council on Foreign Relations. (2016). Deforestation in the Amazon. Retrieved from http://on.cfr.org/29334so
  2. Darlington, S. (2018, December 10). Illegal Mining, ‘Worse Than at Any Other Time,’ Threatens Amazon, Study Finds. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/10/world/americas/amazon-illegal-mining.html
  3. Earthworks. “How the 20 Tons of Mine Waste per Gold Ring Figure Was Calculated .” Earthworks No Dirty Gold Campaign, Earthworks, https://earthworks.org/cms/assets/uploads/archive/files/publications/20TonsMemo_FINAL.pdf.
  4. Emmanuel AY, Jerry CS, Dzigbodi DA. Review of Environmental and Health Impacts of Mining in Ghana. J Health Pollut. 2018;8(17):43–52. Published 2018 Mar 12. doi:10.5696/2156-9614-8.17.43
  5. Environmental Protection Agency. (2018, November 21). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Without Mercury. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/international-cooperation/artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-without-mercury
  6. Espejo, J. C., Messinger, M., Román-Dañobeytia, F., Ascorra, C., Fernandez, L., & Silman, M. (2018). Deforestation and Forest Degradation Due to Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: A 34-Year Perspective. Remote Sensing, 10(12), 1903. doi: 10.3390/rs10121903
  7. FATF and APG (2015), Money laundering and terrorist financing risks and vulnerabilities associated with gold, FATF, Paris and APG, Syney www.fatf-gafi.org/topics/methodsandtrends/documents/ml-tf-risks-and-vulnerabilities-gold.html
  8. Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. (2016). Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America.  Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Organized-Crime-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America.pdf
  9. GRID-Arendal (2019). UN Environment and Grid-Arendal. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining. https://www.grida.no/resources/13340
  10. Human Rights Watch. (2018). “The Hidden Cost of Jewelry: Human Rights in Supply Chains and the Responsibility of Jewelry Companies.” Human Rights Watch, 8 Feb. 2018, https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/02/08/hidden-cost-jewelry/human-rights-supply-chains-and-responsibility-jewelry.
  11. Hunter, M., Smith, A., Levin-McNally, E., Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, & GIZ. (2017, March). Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining. Retrieved from https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/illicit-financial-flows-linked-to-artisanal_06.03.17.compressed-1.pdf                     
  12. Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF). (2017). Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. Winnipeg: IISD.
  13. Jewelers Vigilance Committee. “About AML.” JVC, https://jvclegal.org/about-aml/.
  14. “LBMA Historic Gold Price.” ICE Report Center – Data, https://www.theice.com/marketdata/reports/178. Accessed August 19, 2019.
  15. Lewis, D., McNeill, R., & Shabalala, Z. (2019, April 24). Gold worth billions is smuggled out of Africa – new analysis. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/gold-africa-smuggling/
  16. Moskowitz, P. (2014, August 13). Mount Polley mine spill: a hazard of Canada’s industry-friendly attitude? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/aug/13/mount-polley-mine-spill-british-columbia-canada
  17. OECD (2013), OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Second Edition, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264185050-en
  18. OECD (2016), OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Third Edition, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252479-en
  19. OECD. “Due Diligence Guidance towards Conflict-Free Mineral Supply Chains.” OECD, https://www.oecd.org/daf/inv/mne/EasytoUseGuide_English.pdf.
  20. Jewelry Glossary Project. (2019). Jewelry Glossary Project, https://jewelryglossaryproject.com. Accessed September 6, 2019.
  21. Phillips, D. (2019, July 28). Amazon gold miners invade indigenous village in Brazil after its leader is killed. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/28/amazon-gold-miners-invade-indigenous-village-brazil-leader-killed
  22. Pickles, S. (2015, January 5). River of Gold. Global Witness. Retrieved from https://www.globalwitness.org/it/campaigns/conflict-minerals/river-of-gold-drc/
  23. Pressly, L. (2013, September 18). How mercury poisons gold miners and enters the food chain. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24127661
  24. Responsible Jewelry Council. “Standard Guidance (COP 10) Money Laundering and Finance of Terrorism .” Responsible Jewelry Council Code of Practices Guidance, https://www.responsiblejewellery.com/files/Money-Laundering-and-Finance-of-Terrorism-RJC-Guidance-draftv1.pdf .
  25. Responsible Minerals Initiative. (2019) “What Are Conflict Minerals?” Responsible Minerals Initiative, http://www.responsiblemineralsinitiative.org/about/faq/general-questions/what-are-conflict-minerals/.
  26. Swenson J, Carter CE, Domec J-C, Delgado CI (2011) Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: Global Prices, Deforestation, and Mercury Imports. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018875
  27. Swissinfo.ch. (2019, June 18). Boycotting artisanal gold miners is not the answer. Retrieved from https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/opinion_metalor–mark-pieth-gold/45037966
  28. United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), 2017. Global mercury supply, trade and demand. United Nations Environment Programme, Chemicals and Health Branch. Geneva, Switzerland. https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/21725/global_mercury.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 
  29. Vella, H. (2018, September 24). The rising risk of gold supply chains in South America. Retrieved from https://www.mining-technology.com/features/the-rising-risk-of-gold-supply-chains-in-south-america/
  30. VOA News. (2019, March 14). Illegal Mining Endangers Lives, Environment in Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/illegal-mining-endangers-lives-environment-indonesia
  31. Weaver, Jay, et al. “How Drug Lords Make Billions Smuggling Gold to Miami for Your Jewelry and Phones.” Miamiherald, Miami Herald, 24 Jan. 2018, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/article194187699.html.
  32. World Bank. 2019. 2019 State of the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
  33. Wyss, J. (2018, January 16). How U.S. demand for gold jewelry and bullion is poisoning children in the Amazon. Retrieved from https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/article196933579.html

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