VOICES FOR THE AMAZON
»Introduction

»About This Toolkit

»The Challenge

»The Cost

»What Has Been Done So Far?

REFERENCES

References

  1. Council on Foreign Relations. (2016). Deforestation in the Amazon. Retrieved from http://on.cfr.org/29334so
  2. Darlington, S. (2018, December 10). Illegal Mining, ‘Worse Than at Any Other Time,’ Threatens Amazon, Study Finds. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/10/world/americas/amazon-illegal-mining.html
  3. Earthworks. “How the 20 Tons of Mine Waste per Gold Ring Figure Was Calculated .” Earthworks No Dirty Gold Campaign, Earthworks, https://earthworks.org/cms/assets/uploads/archive/files/publications/20TonsMemo_FINAL.pdf.
  4. Emmanuel AY, Jerry CS, Dzigbodi DA. Review of Environmental and Health Impacts of Mining in Ghana. J Health Pollut. 2018;8(17):43–52. Published 2018 Mar 12. doi:10.5696/2156-9614-8.17.43
  5. Environmental Protection Agency. (2018, November 21). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Without Mercury. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/international-cooperation/artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-without-mercury
  6. Espejo, J. C., Messinger, M., Román-Dañobeytia, F., Ascorra, C., Fernandez, L., & Silman, M. (2018). Deforestation and Forest Degradation Due to Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: A 34-Year Perspective. Remote Sensing, 10(12), 1903. doi: 10.3390/rs10121903
  7. FATF and APG (2015), Money laundering and terrorist financing risks and vulnerabilities associated with gold, FATF, Paris and APG, Syney www.fatf-gafi.org/topics/methodsandtrends/documents/ml-tf-risks-and-vulnerabilities-gold.html
  8. Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. (2016). Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America.  Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Organized-Crime-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America.pdf
  9. GRID-Arendal (2019). UN Environment and Grid-Arendal. Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining. https://www.grida.no/resources/13340
  10. Human Rights Watch. (2018). “The Hidden Cost of Jewelry: Human Rights in Supply Chains and the Responsibility of Jewelry Companies.” Human Rights Watch, 8 Feb. 2018, https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/02/08/hidden-cost-jewelry/human-rights-supply-chains-and-responsibility-jewelry.
  11. Hunter, M., Smith, A., Levin-McNally, E., Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, & GIZ. (2017, March). Financial Flows linked to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining. Retrieved from https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/illicit-financial-flows-linked-to-artisanal_06.03.17.compressed-1.pdf                     
  12. Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF). (2017). Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. Winnipeg: IISD.
  13. Jewelers Vigilance Committee. “About AML.” JVC, https://jvclegal.org/about-aml/.
  14. “LBMA Historic Gold Price.” ICE Report Center – Data, https://www.theice.com/marketdata/reports/178. Accessed August 19, 2019.
  15. Lewis, D., McNeill, R., & Shabalala, Z. (2019, April 24). Gold worth billions is smuggled out of Africa – new analysis. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/gold-africa-smuggling/
  16. Moskowitz, P. (2014, August 13). Mount Polley mine spill: a hazard of Canada’s industry-friendly attitude? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/aug/13/mount-polley-mine-spill-british-columbia-canada
  17. OECD (2013), OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Second Edition, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264185050-en
  18. OECD (2016), OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas: Third Edition, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264252479-en
  19. OECD. “Due Diligence Guidance towards Conflict-Free Mineral Supply Chains.” OECD, https://www.oecd.org/daf/inv/mne/EasytoUseGuide_English.pdf.
  20. Jewelry Glossary Project. (2019). Jewelry Glossary Project, https://jewelryglossaryproject.com. Accessed September 6, 2019.
  21. Phillips, D. (2019, July 28). Amazon gold miners invade indigenous village in Brazil after its leader is killed. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/28/amazon-gold-miners-invade-indigenous-village-brazil-leader-killed
  22. Pickles, S. (2015, January 5). River of Gold. Global Witness. Retrieved from https://www.globalwitness.org/it/campaigns/conflict-minerals/river-of-gold-drc/
  23. Pressly, L. (2013, September 18). How mercury poisons gold miners and enters the food chain. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24127661
  24. Responsible Jewelry Council. “Standard Guidance (COP 10) Money Laundering and Finance of Terrorism .” Responsible Jewelry Council Code of Practices Guidance, https://www.responsiblejewellery.com/files/Money-Laundering-and-Finance-of-Terrorism-RJC-Guidance-draftv1.pdf .
  25. Responsible Minerals Initiative. (2019) “What Are Conflict Minerals?” Responsible Minerals Initiative, http://www.responsiblemineralsinitiative.org/about/faq/general-questions/what-are-conflict-minerals/.
  26. Swenson J, Carter CE, Domec J-C, Delgado CI (2011) Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: Global Prices, Deforestation, and Mercury Imports. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018875
  27. Swissinfo.ch. (2019, June 18). Boycotting artisanal gold miners is not the answer. Retrieved from https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/opinion_metalor–mark-pieth-gold/45037966
  28. United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), 2017. Global mercury supply, trade and demand. United Nations Environment Programme, Chemicals and Health Branch. Geneva, Switzerland. https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/21725/global_mercury.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y 
  29. Vella, H. (2018, September 24). The rising risk of gold supply chains in South America. Retrieved from https://www.mining-technology.com/features/the-rising-risk-of-gold-supply-chains-in-south-america/
  30. VOA News. (2019, March 14). Illegal Mining Endangers Lives, Environment in Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/illegal-mining-endangers-lives-environment-indonesia
  31. Weaver, Jay, et al. “How Drug Lords Make Billions Smuggling Gold to Miami for Your Jewelry and Phones.” Miamiherald, Miami Herald, 24 Jan. 2018, https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/article194187699.html.
  32. World Bank. 2019. 2019 State of the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
  33. Wyss, J. (2018, January 16). How U.S. demand for gold jewelry and bullion is poisoning children in the Amazon. Retrieved from https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/article196933579.html

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